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I’m an independent IT consultant and entrepreneur in the Internet and software business. I’m interested in design, enterprise applications, web apps and SaaS products. I design and develop business solutions and applications. I help companies in terms of software quality and knowledge transfer, e.g. with Angular and Spring Boot.

API-First Development with Spring Boot and Swagger at Reflectoring

When I recently had to look into some of the specifics of using Swagger and OpenAPI for designing an API specification and generating a Spring Boot application skeleton from that specification (using OpenAPI Generator) I came across this very useful and comprehensive article on the subject on the Reflectoring blog: API-First Development with Spring Boot and Swagger From creating an API specification with the Swagger editor to generating code (with the OpenAPI Generator Maven plugin, specifically) and implementing the generated interfaces the article ... Read more

The Richardson Maturity Model for REST APIs

On his website about software design patterns Martin Fowler provides an in-depth explanation of the Richardson Maturity Model for HTTP-based REST APIs by Leonard Richardson. According to that model REST APIs come in 4 levels of sophistication: Level 0, aka the "Everything is a POST request" model for example propagated by SOAP. This is basically tantamount to remote procedure invocation. Level 1 - Resources: Every resource is accessed through its own canonical URL. Level 2 - HTTP Verbs: Verbs such as GET, PUT, PATCH and ... Read more

API Security Best Practices by Expedited Security

For everyone dealing with web-based APIs, both as a provider and a consumer, web app security service supplier Expedited Security (known for Expedited SSL, among other products) has compiled a vast, extensive compendium on API security best practices. The importance of secure APIs and best practices that help has make APIs more secure and dependable can't be emphasised enough. Covering each possible attack vector and adopting every best practice out there can seem like a truly daunting task. Guides like this one help ... Read more

Jess Frazelle: “For the Love of Pipes”

Somewhat recently, Jess Frazelle wrote about her love of UNIX pipes, a sentiment I wholeheartedly share, to the extent that I think web apps should behave more like Unix programs by making data readily available via APIs so other applications can easily process that data. This, in a nutshell, is the Unix philosophy as stated by Doug McIlroy: Make each program do one thing well. To do a new job, build afresh rather than complicate old programs by adding new "features". Expect the output ... Read more

HTTP and REST Standards, Protocols and Headers for More Secure and More Robust Applications

Standards.REST is a website that helps you create better, more robust HTTP- and REST-based applications by providing an overview of existing, proven standards that allow you to build on existing solutions rather than re-invent the wheel yourself. The list of standards mentioned includes OAuth 2.0, the HTTP Caching standard and Application-Level Profile Semantics (ALPS), which - among others - is used extensively in Spring Data REST and Spring HATEOAS. On a closely related note, Stefan Judis published an article on HTTP headers ... Read more

HTML is an API

HTML is an API or rather it could be if we used more in the way it was intended. In a comment on this Hacker News post about Toapi, a library that makes clever use of XPath expressions in order to provide an API from existing web pages, a user wrote Now I don't want to be a downer: but we collectively seem to have forgotten that HTML as a markup language with sufficient semantic elements, is a perfect API in itself. ... Read more

More on JSON and REST API Specifications

Expanding on my previous posts about annotating and validating JSON data structure with JSON Schema defining and documenting REST APIs using Swagger I have two additional suggestions for tools that help you define and build HTTP-based APIs in a less haphazard, more deliberate manner: JSON API: While JSON Schema allows you to annotate and validate JSON-based data types JSON API gives you clear, opinionated guidelines for structuring JSON API responses so you don't have think about those implementation details yourself. Having uniform guidelines for API ... Read more

Swagger: A Roundtrip Tool For Creating And Consuming REST APIs

In this second part of my series on useful tools for developing CRUD applications I'd like to introduce Swagger and Swagger Codegen in particular. Introduce perhaps isn't exactly the right word because first of all Swagger is quite well known in developer circles these days. Secondly, a few months ago I wrote a blog post about how to use Swagger to generate client SDKs for REST APIs. Swagger - originally having originated at Wordnik is a tool for documenting and publishing their ... Read more

Using Netflix Zuul As a Reverse Proxy / API Gateway

Zuul, which like the service discovery tool Eureka and the fault tolerance library Hystrix is part of Netflix' cloud orchestration stack, is a reverse proxy / API gateway. A reverse proxy conceptually works like this: A reverse proxy allows you to route requests to a single domain to multiple backing services behind that proxy. This can be conducive in situations where you want to break up your application into several loosely-coupled components that externally, that is facing the user, nonetheless act as if ... Read more
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